In this theme, we endeavor to make a meaningful contribution to the understanding of multiple stressors to ecological and social components of freshwater and estuarine ecosystems we care about.

This includes the development of evidence based ecological risk assessment procedures for regional scale holistic multi-stressor application where the dynamics of ecosystems are incorporated. In this theme, we have established internationally recognised ecological risk assessment and E-flow tools that have been used locally and abroad.

Within this theme we have established numerous international collaborations with scientists and institutions in North America, Europe, Australia and in Africa. In this theme, we monitor and report on the well-being of freshwater and estuarine ecosystems.

Current projects include: